Following the purge, Tōseiha and Kōdōha elements were unified in their nationalist but highly anti-political stance under the banner of the Tōseiha military clique, which included Tojo as one of its leaders.  Tojo wrote with bitterness at the time that American whites would never accept Asians as equals and "It [the Immigration Control Act] shows how the strong will always put their own interests first. Former Prime Minister of Japan, Hideki Tojo, on trial for war crimes. British gained a lot from his disappearance. In short, the Emperor had absorbed the views of the army and navy high commands. Hideki Tojo[a] (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a Japanese politician and general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association for most of World War II. ", The sustained intensity of this campaign to protect the Emperor was revealed when, in testifying before the tribunal on December 31, 1947, Tojo momentarily strayed from the agreed-upon line concerning imperial innocence and referred to the Emperor's ultimate authority. The only real crime of Tojo, or Keitel, or whoever, was to surrender without conditions. Operation Ichigo would end the war with China, freeing up some 2 million Japanese soldiers. Tojo was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the... Consigue fotografías de noticias de alta resolución y gran calidad en Getty Images On this date in 1948, seven “Class A” war criminals, including Japan’s wartime Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, were hanged at Sugamo Prison by the American occupation authorities. The result was a compromise where Tojo would become Prime Minister while "re-examining" the options for dealing with the crisis with the United States, though no promise was made Tojo would attempt to avoid a war. They, in turn, were influenced by younger elements within the services at large and by ultranationalists outside military ranks. Hideki Tōjō was born on 30 December 1884 in Tokyo, Japan where he was the third son of a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army named Hidenori Tōjō. , The Emperor summoned Tojo to the Imperial Palace one day before Tojo took office. On November 26, 1941, the American Secretary of State Cordell Hull handed Ambassador Nomura and Kurusu Saburo in Washington a "draft mutual declaration of policy" and "Outline of Proposed Basis for Agreement between the United States and Japan".  The Treaty of Portsmouth was so unpopular that it set off anti-American riots known as the Hibiya incendiary incident as many Japanese were enraged at the way the Americans had apparently cheated Japan as the Japanese gains in the treaty were far less than what public opinion had expected. On May 3, 1946, the indictments were read at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. U.S. Army. As a result of this experience, the Army had medical personnel present during the later arrests of other accused Japanese war criminals, such as Shigetarō Shimada.  When Field Marshal Sugiyama complained to the Emperor about being fired and having the Prime Minister run the General Staff, the Emperor told him he supported Tojo. Gen. Hideki Tojo of the Imperial Japanese Army. , In parallel with the invasion of India, in April 1944 Tojo began Operation Ichigo, the largest Japanese offensive of the entire war, with the aim of taking southern China.  He recognised the same in his poems, which were discovered much later. He was dissuaded from this course because two divisions of the INA were still intact and he thought of a new role for this patriotic Indian military force in the postwar situation. The false news of air crash was Japan’s fabrication. Following the surrender of Japan the United States sent for the arrest of 40 war criminals, one of them was Hideki Tojo.  On July 30, 1940, Hideki Tojo was appointed Army Minister in the second Fumimaro Konoe regime and remained in that post in the third Konoe cabinet. With 20-20 hindsight, modern critics have pointed out that Hirohito bore almost as much responsibility for the war as Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, who was sentenced to death by the war crimes tribunal. In 1948, former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war leaders were hanged in Tokyo under sentence of the Allied War Crimes Commission. Hirohito rejected this option, arguing that a member of the imperial family should not have to eventually carry the responsibility for a war against the West as a defeat would ruin the prestige of the House of Yamato. On this date in 1948, seven “Class A” war criminals, including Japan’s wartime Prime Minister Hideki Tojo, were hanged at Sugamo Prison by the American occupation authorities. Motive was to appease the British and purchase security for Japan royal family. In order to understand this, all nations must hate war, forsake emotion, reflect upon their pasts, and think calmly. Grand Cordon of the Order of Auspicious Clouds, Manchukuo, Grand Cordon of the Order of the Pillars of State, Manchukuo, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 08:54. ↑ Baudot, Marcel.  The Japanese historian Yoshiaki Yoshimi noted this document proves that Tojo was aware of and approved of the "comfort women" corps. The American-led prosecution immediately arranged that he be secretly coached to recant this testimony. She was the granddaughter of General Hideki Tōjō, the Japanese wartime prime minister who was convicted as a Class A war criminal and hanged after World War II in 1948. “Death on the gallows was decreed today for Hideki Tojo, the cold, calculating Japanese who led his country to fight in the world’s bloodiest war….” In the early years of the war, Tojo had popular support as Japanese forces moved from one victory to another. So British became an enemy to Japan by diplomatic manipulation as US – British alliance was there. However Yonai refused to serve, knowing full well that a Prime Minister who attempted to make peace with the Americans might be assassinated, as many Army officers were still committed to victory or death and regarded any talk of peace as treason.  From December 1938 to 1940, Tojo was Inspector-General of Army Aviation.  In an attempt to enlist support from all of Asia, especially China, Tojo opened the Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, which issued a set of Pan-Asian war aims, which made little impression on most Asians. The sum of it all was that Bose joined the wrong forces, and had to pay dearly for his folly. I think the forthcoming trials offer the best opportunity to do that. Thus Netaji assassination is common program of Japan and British.  The dispute was resolved by the Emperor who commuted the death sentences of five fliers while allowing the other three to die, for reasons that remain unclear as the documents relating to the Emperor's intervention were burned in 1945.. What is the mystery behind this favor?  For this reason, Konoe wanted Tojo, a tough general whose ultra-nationalism was beyond question, to provide "cover" for his attempt to seek a diplomatic solution to the war with China. In 1922, on his way home to Japan, Tojo took a train ride across the United States, his first and only visit to America, which left him with the impression that the Americans were a materialistic "soft" people devoted only to making money and to hedonistic pursuits like sex, partying and (despite Prohibition) drinking.  Some of the American planes were shot down and their pilots taken prisoner. He also served concurrently as Home Minister from 1941 to 1942, Foreign Minister in September 1942, Education Minister in 1943, and Minister of Commerce and Industry in 1943. If he had told anything, that must be lie. They were ready to pay the price the new masters demanded of them. An American officer reads the charges and a translator repeats them to Tojo, who stands and listens. Reflecting the imagery often used in Japan to describe people in power, Tojo told his officers that they were to be both a "father" and a "mother" to the men under their command. There was enough scope for British and Japanese spies to develop a common minimum program against pro-communist agenda of Netaji. O-Halpin had handed over the classified documents to Krishna Bose. Hideki Tojo appointed Togo as his foreign minister in October 1941. The executions were carried out by the American occupation authorities. Why Japan royal family was not tried as a war criminal? During his tenure, he presided over numerous war crimes including the massacre and starvation of civilians and prisoners of war. Among the first was Hideki Tojo, the son of a military officer who rose to become the nation’s penultimate leader during much of the war. Hideki Tojo was a Japanese general and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan (October 18, 1941-July 22, 1944). I mean to pay considerable attention to this in my actions, and say to the end that what is true is true and what is false is false. Under Hideki Tōjō's leadership during WWII, Japan conducted brutal humans experiments, enslaved thousands of "comfort women," and routinely cannibalized POWs. But after all, Tojo the man was never a leper, but part and parcel of his times. British ruled India with the policy of divide and rule. The British Foreign Office had ordered the assassination of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in 1941, just after he had made his “grand escape” from Kolkata.  The next day, Fleet Admiral Osami Nagano explained in detail the Pearl Harbor attack plan to Hirohito.  The Operations Bureaus of the Army and Navy would develop their own plans and then attempt to "sell them" to the other, which was often not possible. Very few Japanese at the time had understood that the war with Russia had pushed their nation to the verge of bankruptcy, and most people in Japan believed that the American president Theodore Roosevelt who had mediated the Treaty of Portsmouth had cheated Japan out of its rightful gains. I just stop ready when the Jew Hatred starts……….. From the invasion of China until the last shot was fired in 1945, the Japanese committed war crimes. It was not his command or dictate. He was to die because he had a large following in India,” said O’Halpin. Hideki Tojo (1884 – 1948) ... After the end of the war, Tojo was arrested, tried for war crimes, and sentenced to death by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE).  In November 1943, the American public's reaction to the Battle of Tarawa led Tojo to view Tarawa as a sort of Japanese victory, believing that more battles like Tarawa would break American morale, and force the U.S. to sue for peace. On October 16, Konoe, politically isolated and convinced that the Emperor no longer trusted him, resigned. A history professor, O-Halpin said the plan of British Special Operation Executive to assassinate Bose, on his way to Germany was foiled as he changed his route and went via Russia. In the spring of 1945, he had wanted personally to lead a military challenge against the superior forces of the Allies. Until then the War Ministry required special permission to take "comfort women" without papers, and Tojo was tired of dealing with these requests.  As the Burmese had proved to be enthusiastic collaborators in the "New Order in Asia", the new Burmese kingdom would be allowed to annex much of north-east India as a reward.  Tojo's major concern as Army Chief of Staff was planning the operations in China and India, with less time given over to the coming battles in the Marianas.  Tojo attacked Britain, France and the United States for waging "ideological war" against Japan since 1919. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Hideki Tojo sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II. While the article was almost silly in it’s naivete and agenda driven. , In September 1943, the Emperor and Tojo agreed that Japan would pull back to an "absolute defense line" in the south-west Pacific to stem the American advance, and considered abandoning Rabaul base, but changed their minds in face of objections from the Navy. Tojo sacked the Operations office and his deputy at the general staff, who were opposed to withdrawing, and ordered the abandonment of the island.  In 1909, Hideki married Katsuko Ito, with whom he had three sons (Hidetake, Teruo, and Toshio) and four daughters (Mitsue, Makie, Sachie and Kimie).  After being informed of his appointment, Tojo was given one order from the Emperor: to make a policy review of what had been sanctioned by the Imperial Conferences. Former Japanese Premier, Hideki Tojo, is escorted from the prisoners section to the witness box during the War Crimes Trials in Tokyo, Japan. Tojo was promoted to Chief of staff of the Kwangtung Army in 1937. Why should Japanese imperialism agree to patronize emergence of independent India as a permanent communist ally? Even though Hideki Tojo played a major part in Japan entering World War II, Emperor Hirohito was ultimately the major person responsible for the War. In his testimony, he took every opportunity to assert his own guilt, and claimed that the Emperor was blameless. Politically, he was nationalist, and militarist, and was nicknamed "Razor" (カミソリ, Kamisori), for his reputation of having a sharp and legalistic mind capable of quick decision-making. " Tojo was more of a follower than a leader, and he represented mainstream opinion in the Army, and so his removal from office would not mean the end of the political ambitions of an Army still fanatically committed to victory or death. I do not htink that anyone in the world gave a s—- for the On May 3rd, the Court began the trial proper of Tojo Hideki, with Chief Public Prosecutor Keenan – over May 4th and May 5th – reading-out the 42-page Indictment that listed the Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity committed by Tojo Hideki … On February 21, 1944, he became Chief of Staff of the Imperial Japanese Army. If those who served the Axis are to be on trial just for doing so, then, as well, veterans of Allied nations could answer before the court for what happened in Allied occupation zones of ex-Axis countries. Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images 5.  During the meetings of the jushin regarding Prince Konoe's succession, Okada argued against Tojo's appointment while the powerful Lord Privy Seal Kōichi Kido pushed for Tojo. “I met PM on July 26 and informed him of the existence of documents and told him that unveiling these documents would not affect bilateral ties with UK.” said Bose. C/U as the Marshal of the court swears Tojo in. So, Japan sold Netaji to British and British executed him in secret. the emperor and his family (all were guilty) did not stand He was charged with allowing a massacre in China, human experimentation, starvation and forced labor.  The Tojo family came from the samurai caste, though the Tojos were relatively lowly warrior retainers for the great daimyōs (lords) that they had served for generations. Japanese and British spies were enough linked before WW-II. After Japan's unconditional surrender in 1945, U.S. general Douglas MacArthur ordered the arrest of forty alleged war criminals, including Tojo. In any controversial case, liar is to be suspected first. The INA, too, had been penetrated by persons who were Allies’ operatives. Hideki Tojo standing in dock of War Crimes court wearing earphones, hearing sentence of death passed on him by court. M/S Tojo's defence attorney, George Francis Blewett at the lectern asking for Tojo to be brought to the stand. To shade one's words in flattery to the point of untruthfulness would falsify the trial and do incalculable harm to the nation, and great care must be taken to avoid this. The diary of the World War Two Prime Minister of Imperial Japan, General Hideki Tojo, was made public by his wife, as per his wishes, many years after he was hanged in 1948 for war crimes.  The jushin (elder statesmen) had advised the Emperor that Tojo needed to go after Saipan and further advised the Emperor against partial changes in the cabinet, demanding that the entire Tojo cabinet resign. official reason being that we did not want to upset the Japs. Hideki Tojo, was the most prominent Japanese to be executed for war crimes. Defeated and surrendered japans had not worked as azad hind ally. In axis camp, creation of dummy by plastic surgery was a common practice. As a result of this experience, the Army had medical personnel present during the later arrests of other accused Japanese war criminals, such as Shigetarō Shimada. As matters stand now we can merely keep silent and without the least effort war will begin. Hideki Tojo was tried before the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes. our one-of-a-kind custom playing card deck, 1705: John “Half-Hanged” Smith Half-Hanged, 1948: Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war criminals, International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1569: Orthodox Metropolitan Philip II of Moscow, 1736: Ana de Castro and two Jesuit effigies in a Lima auto de fe, 1679: "A number of poor people for the crime of witchcraft", 1605: Niklaus von Gulchen, Nuremberg privy councillor, 1926: Petrus Stephanus Hauptfleisch, mother-murderer, 1799: Isaac Yeshurun Sasportas, anti-slavery insurrectionist, 1942: Sasha Filippov, during the Battle of Stalingrad, 1945: Benito Mussolini, his mistress, and his aides, 1849: Lajos Batthyány and the 13 Martyrs of Arad, 1887: Parsons, Spies, Fischer and Engel, the Haymarket Martyrs, international military tribunal for the far east, This Day in History: December 23rd- Tojo's End, ExecutedToday.com » Executed Today’s Fourth Annual Report: Wrung, Wan and Quartered, ExecutedToday.com » Executed Today’s Third Annual Report: Third Time Lucky, ExecutedToday.com » 1949: Yoshio Kodaira, soldier turned serial killer, Hideki Tojo Attempted Suicide | American Studies Cockerham, 1617: A miller of Manberna, the hangman’s last, 2009: Ehsan Fatahian, Iranian Kurdish activist, 1066: John Scotus, sacrificed to Radegast, 1801: Hyacinth Moise, Haitian Revolution general, 1738: George Whalley and Dean Briant, wife-murderers, 1936: Arnold Sodeman, Schoolgirl Strangler, 1942: Eleven members of the Red Orchestra, 1676: Joshua Tefft, drawn and quartered in Rhode Island. The Japan of which General Hideki Tojo became premier was operated by remote control. As War Minister in 1940 he was instrumental in leading Japan into the Axis Alliance with Nazi Germany and Italy. I would point out that the cultural advance of these people has been suppressed in the past and continues to be suppressed in the present by policies designed to keep them in ignorance. When I told him that to initiate war is a mistake, he agreed.  Tojo's boyhood hero was the 17th-century shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu who issued the injunction: "Avoid the things you like, turn your attention to unpleasant duties". 1941-10-15 Hideki Tojo appointed Prime Minister of Imperial Japan; 1943-07-07-10] Japanese premier Hideki Tojo visits Java; 1945-09-11 Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister during most of World War II, attempts suicide rather than face war crimes tribunal but fails - later he is hanged (4) Hideki Tojo attempted to defend himself against the accusation of war crimes. The emperor was considered a deity and put him on trial was impossible. When the Americans made the expected offensive into the Marianas, the Imperial Navy's Combined Fleet would fight a decisive battle of annihilation against the U.S. 5th Fleet, and halt the American drive in the central Pacific. No, Tojo was not the Hitler of the East (this doesn’t mean he wasn’t one of the Japanese war criminals, but he never was so powerful to be called a “Hitler”). Tōjō had two other brothers that were older than him but they all died before he was born.  One source attributes 5 million civilian deaths to Tojo's rule of the military. Five American GIs were sent to serve the arrest warrant. Of two through five above, which is civilization? 1948: Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war criminals. In the Southwest Pacific, the Japanese forces in New Guinea and the Solomon Islands would stay on the defensive and try to slow down the American, Australian, and New Zealand forces for long as possible.  As the news of the disastrous defeat suffered at Saipan reached Japan, it turned elite opinion against the Tojo government. (Gandhiji in 1946-47 had the same fear. As the Army Minister, he continued to expand the war with China. The orders had come from London. L/S court room. Even in the midst of war, this was a remarkable instruction. Netaji’s last flight was on 18th august 1945. To advocate a New Order was to seek freedom and respect for peoples without prejudice, and to seek a stable basis for the existence all peoples, equally, and free of threats. About Hideki (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during most of World War II, from October 17, 1941 to July 22, 1944. In a 1997 survey of university students in China asking "When somebody talks about Japanese people, what person do you think of? The Japanese army committed atrocities in every country they invaded. Tokyo, Japan. 15 at the time. , After being informed of Tojo's appointment, Prince Takamatsu wrote in his diary: "We have finally committed to war and now must do all we can to launch it powerfully. With options thus foreclosed, in order to protect and defend the nation and clear the obstacles that stood in its path, a decisive appeal to arms was made. Which is international justice? Tojo remained prime minister through much of the war, leading the war effort until 1944, when he resigned his position. He was hanged until dead on December 23, 1948. The British gave India independence in 1947.  Despite saying he favored peace, Tojo had often declared at cabinet meetings that any withdrawal from French Indochina and/or China would be damaging to military morale and might threaten the kokutai; the "China Incident" could not be resolved via diplomacy and required a military solution; and attempting to compromise with the Americans would be seen as weakness by them.. Mr. Wilpers was an Army intelligence officer in World War II who finally received military honors in 2010 for his role in capturing Hideki Tojo, the former Japanese prime minister. The decision remains debatable.  The American historian Herbert Bix wrote that Tojo was a "dictator" only in the narrow sense that from September 1942 on, he was generally able to impose his will on the Cabinet without seeking a consensus, but at same time noted that Tojo's authority was based upon the support of the Emperor, who held ultimate power. Hideki Tojo , former Japanese general, premier and war minister from December 2nd, 1941 to July takes the stand for the first time during the International Tribunal trials in Tokyo, Japan, 1947. But his decision to change route and reach Germany via Russia had scuttled their plan. Tojo’s love for the Emperor to see that no fault would be placed on him made Tojo to lie during the trial.  This book of fifteen essays by senior generals argued that Japan had defeated Russia in the war of 1904–05 because bushidō had given the Japanese superior willpower as the Japanese did not fear death unlike the Russians who wanted to live, and what was needed to win the The Greater East Asia War was justified and righteous. Later, he justified himself to his chief cabinet secretary, Kenji Tomita: Of course His Majesty is a pacifist, and there is no doubt he wished to avoid war. A general at the Imperial Japanese Army, Hideki Tojo, aka Razor (nicknamed for his sharp and legalistic capabilities for decision making) was born in Tokyo, Japan on the 30th of December, 1884. Netaji had not rejected the idea of his being taken to India as a prisoner. I ... Tōjō was arrested, sentenced to death for Japanese war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and was hanged on December 23, 1948. However, Hirohito thought that he might be able to control extreme opinions in the army by using the charismatic and well-connected Tojo, who had expressed reservations regarding war with the West, although the Emperor himself was skeptical that Tojo would be able to avoid conflict. This course was abandoned on August 14, 1945, on the advice of the members of the Azad Hind government and other important officers of the INA. He had foreknowledge of Japan’s decision to capitulate.  The Japanese believed that indoctrination in bushido ("the way of the warrior") would give them the edge as the Japanese longed to die for the Emperor, while the Americans were afraid to die, but superior American pilot training and airplanes meant the Japanese were hopelessly outclassed by the Americans. Nach der bedingungslosen Kapitulation Japans 1945 ordnete US-General Douglas MacArthur die Verhaftung von vierzig mutmaßlichen Kriegsverbrechern an, einschließlich Japans Premierminister Tōjō Hideki. I remember these events clearly, I woulld have been about It is necessary to bear this fact in mind when the story of his death in an air crash on August 18, 1945 is read. Suicide was not the aim of this move. On Dec. 23, 1948, former Prime Minister Hideki Tojo and six other Japanese war leaders were hanged in Tokyo under sentence of the Allied War Crimes Commission. ", the answer that most gave was Hideki Tojo, reflecting a lingering sense of hurt in China about Japan's wartime aggression. By 1940, Konoe, who had started the war with China in 1937, no longer believed that a military solution to the "China Affair" was possible as he once did, instead favored having Germany mediate an end to the war that would presumably result in a pro-Japanese peace settlement, but would be less than he himself had outlined in the "Konoe programme" of January 1938. , Tojo was appointed commander of the IJA 24th Infantry Brigade in August 1934.  The "Hull note" as it is known in Japan made it clear the United States would not recognise the puppet government of Wang Jingwei as the government of China, but strongly implied that the United States might recognise the "Empire of Manchukuo"[opinion] and did not impose a deadline for the Japanese withdrawal from China.  The Japanese were defeated by the Anglo-Indian 14th Army at the Battles of Imphal and Kohima.  A stern, humorless man, Tojo was known for his brusque manner, his obsession with etiquette, and for his coldness.  Hull proposed that Japan "withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces" from China and French Indochina in exchange for lifting the oil embargo, but left the term China undefined. Three years later, he was tried and convicted as a war criminal, and on Nov. 12, 1948 he was hanged for his crimes. (tho… I don’t understand the “why?”) If anyone can show that Emperor Hirohito gave any orders what-so ever – or was even consulted in any way as to the direction of the war – PLEASE, prove me wrong. Towards the end of May, the London office was told by Delhi that Bose could still be in Afghanistan because there was no radio propaganda from Russia, Italy or Germany as they had expected. the queen on a state visit.  The eventual plan drawn up by Army and Navy Chiefs of Staff envisaged such a mauling of the Western powers that Japanese defense perimeter lines—operating on interior lines of communications and inflicting heavy Western casualties—could not be breached. I have just finished reading “Unbroken” by Laura Hillenbrand.  This breach of the "absolute defense line", five months after its creation, led Tojo to fire Admiral Osami Nagano as the Navy Chief of Staff, for incompetence. Why should Japanese imperialism agree to patronize emergence of independent India as a permanent communist ally? 6. Unlike the “Fuhrer” and “Il Duce,” Tojo was a reflector, not a creator, of national thought. There was enough scope for British and Japanese spies to develop a common minimum program against pro-communist agenda of Netaji. On October 14, the deadline had passed with no progress. But who really killed Netaji? In addition, the Japanese fleet which attacked Pearl Harbor was under orders from Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to be prepared to return to Japan on a moment's notice, should negotiations succeed. O–Halpin said the British thought Netaji would travel to Germany from Afghanistan via Iran, Iraq and Turkey and informed representatives in Istanbul and Cairo to carry out the operation. I would like to point out their [my accusers’] inhumane and uncivilized actions in East Asia ever since the Middle Ages. I’m not sure they’re credible enough to use in your article. As Max Hastings wrote, “the reality is that Tojo had less authority in Japan than Churchill had in Britain.” Tojo was a loyal servant of Emperor Hirohito and his actions must be evaluated on that light. truly tojo was the Hitler of the east very evil. THIS WAS AN ACT OF ANGLO-JAPAN SECRETE PACT. It was a country in which puppet politics had reached a high state of development, to the detriment of the national welfare. 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